The James Begg Society

The James Begg Society

Publishers of Protestant, Reformed Christian Literature

The Government of the Kingdom of Christ.— Part III.
by Rev. James Moir Porteous.
(Published in 1888.)

Chapter XII.
Presbytery in British Colonies.

"Candid and just, with no false aim in view;
To take for truth what cannot but be true;
To learn in God's own school the Christian part,
And bind the task assigned thee to thine heart:
Happy the man there seeking and there found;
Happy the nation where such men abound."

IN BRITISH NORTH AMERICA

there is no State Church. The Church of England has 14 bishops and 800 ministers; the Roman Catholic Church, a cardinal, 5 archbishops, 16 bishops, and 1,200 priests. The Presbyterian Church was formed in 1875 out of two distinct bodies. It has 900 ministers. The Methodists have 1,500. The Census of 1881 apportioned the population thus: — Roman Catholics, 1,791,982. Presbyterians, 676,165. Anglicans, 574,818. Methodists, 742,981. Baptists, 296,525. Lutherans, 46,350. Congregationalists, 26,900. Miscellaneous, 79,686. No religion, 2,634. No creed given, 86,769. Total, 4,324,810.

Roman Catholicism prevails most extensively in the province of Quebec. Its adherents number 1,170,718, or 70 per cent of the population of the Dominion. In Ontario, formerly Upper Canada, 320,839 Roman Catholic; 366,539 Anglican; 591,503 Methodist; and 417,749 Presbyterians. In Newfoundland — 64,317 Roman Catholic, and 97,057 Protestant.

The churches in the Dominion, according to their numbers, stand thus: — (1) Roman Catholic, (2) Methodist, (3) Presbyterian, (4) Episcopalian. Rome got the start. France was absolute monarch for a century and a half, sending forth the crucifix and the lily together — the source of rule and misrule being at Rome. In 1759 the Gibraltar of the American Mediterranean fell into the hands of Britons; but there has been no such fusion as between Norman and Saxon. That the Church is the Pope, and contains the State, and that every human being is subject to the Pope, is the teaching prevalent in Eastern Canada. Although there is no State creed, yet Romanism is virtually established by law. The Tithe System is in force, 1/26th of the products of the soil being appropriated. Rates are imposed for buildings; and both are enforced in courts of law. Here the revenue of the Church of Rome is equal to 13 million pounds' worth of property. This goes to uphold 4 archbishops, 20 bishops, and 1,500 priests, who claim a million and three-quarters of people.

The first Protestant missionary laboured at Quebec from 1815 to 1823; and the first organisation from Edinburgh from 1829 to 1834. Under "Father" Chiniquy, 2,263 persons abjured Popery in 1875, who were afterwards followed by large numbers. Now there are 95 French Protestant preaching stations, and 106 missionaries, with 3,000 members — the French Protestant population numbering 11,000, while multitudes of converts pass over into the United States.

The territory over which the Presbyterian Church is spread is not less than 3,330,000 square miles. After successive unions its unity extends from Prince Edward's Island in the east to Vancouver's Island in British Columbia in the west. The annual assembly consists of the fourth of the ministers along with the elders. Its six colleges, situated at Halifax, Quebec, Montreal, Kingston, Toronto, and Winnipeg in Manitoba, have upwards of 250 students. Five Foreign Mission fields are occupied by 19 missionaries and upwards of 60 teachers. Its great Home Mission seeks to provide the millions of the North-West with the bread of life by 640 mission stations. Whilst —

'Westward the course of empire takes its way,
Time's noblest offspring is the last '

And —

'There faith is kept and truth revered,
And man is loved and God is feared.'

The Synod of the Presbyterian Church of Canada, in connection with the Church of Scotland and the Synod of the Church of Scotland in Nova Scotia consists of some who declined to enter into the union consummated in 1876. The "Macdonaldites" inPrince Edward's Island, consisting of 8,000 persons, and one congregation inCape Breton, also adhere to the Church of Scotland.

WEST INDIES AND SOUTH AMERICA.

The Portuguese congregation at Port of Spain, Trinidad, driven by persecution from their native Madeira, and finding refuge here, enjoyed the services — first as catechist, and then for a brief period as ordained minister — of Mr. Da Silva, one of their own countrymen, who had been brought in by Dr. Kalley. After his death in 1849 — about a year after his ordination — a large number of the Portuguese in Trinidad migrated to Illinois. The Presbyterian Church of Trinidad was formed in the island in 1864, and resuscitated in 1872 out of ministers of the United Presbyterian Church, the Canadian Mission to Hindoo immigrants, and of the Free Church Portuguese Mission — each retaining the right of appeal to the Home Church.

In JAMAICA, mission work was commenced by the United Presbyterian Church in 1869, which has a synod here, with 4 presbyteries. The Presbytery of British Guiana has 10 charges and ministers, viz., Buenos Ayres, 3; Fiji Islands, 1; Grenada, 1; Jamaica, 3; Mauritius, 1; South Australia, Woodside, 1.

TheIsland of Jamaica has the first self-governing Presbyterian Church formed out of a mission. It is independent of, while still aided by, the United Presbyterian Church of Scotland; and it has sent forth missionaries to Old Calabar from its Theological Hall.

In MEXICO the Roman Catholic is the prevailing religion. Church and State are independent of each other. There are 62 Protestant churches, with 20,000 adherents. No ecclesiastical body can acquire landed property.

SIERRA LEONE, in West Guinea, has now an area of 486 square miles and 60,546, of whom 271 are whites. Protestants, 39,048; Roman Catholics, 369; Mahometaus, 5,178; the rest Pagans. FALKLAND ISLANDS, in South Atlantic. Population, 1,640, of whom 1,302 are Protestants, 251 Roman Catholics.

GIBRALTAR, &c.

In 1840 attention was directed to Gibraltar. In 1854 a permanent pastor was settled over 1,300 Presbyterian troops in the garrison, and for Presbyterian convicts (66), and a small but permanent civilian congregation. By the census last taken the population was 18,485, of whom 4,753 were British soldiers. Of 14 schools, 8 are Protestant and 6 Roman Catholic.

MALTA.

In the spring of 1842 the late Sheriff Jameson presented an elaborate report, entitled 'Notes on the Spiritual Condition of the South of Europe,' &c., in which he earnestly pressed upon the Church of Scotland the duty of occupying this island, and thus providing for the religious instruction both of Presbyterian residents and the great number of soldiers who are generally stationed there. After the late Rev. Dr. Wood, Malta received a succession of ministers, till in 1854 Mr. Wisely was ordained as pastor of the Presbyterian congregation in the island. It is a somewhat startling fact that there is not at this moment in the island a single native Protestant. In a population of 157,134, it has 5,216 British soldiers, with 87 public schools.

HELIGOLAND, two islands in the North Sea, has a population of 2,001 (Lutherans), with 13,000 visitors from May to October.

In CEYLON there are 4,836 Europeans and 147,977 Christians.

CYPRUS, in Asia, in a population of 186,173, has one-fourth Mahometan, the rest Greek Church.

SOUTH AFRICA. — THE DUTCH REFORMED CHURCH

had its origin in 1652, when a colony was formed in Table Bay, under John Anthony Van Riebeck. In 1665 the first minister arrived, when, besides one elder and one deacon, there were twenty-four communicants. This colony was formed by the Dutch East India Company for provisioning vessels. A small wooden fort was built where now stands Cape Town. A second congregation was formed at Stellenbosch, in 1685. This was twenty-six miles distant. The State then insisted that it had the right to elect one-half the members of session, so that from the first this Church appears to have been in bondage. A number of French exiles joined the colony in 1688, whose influence was beneficial. They formed a third congregation under Pierre Simond. The colony, in the year 1700, extended over a circuit of eighty miles. Owing to perpetual droughts a nomadic habit of life proved to the colonists unfavourable to moral advancement. Their spiritual destitution stirred the spirit of Baron Van Imhoff, by whose exertions two additional congregations were formed in 1743. Two others followed in 1790 and 1799.

In 1811, a political commissioner was appointed to carry on transactions between the consistory and the Government. As yet this was but a branch of the Church at Amsterdam, and subject to the classis or presbytery there. After Cape Colony was ceded to England, and fully possessed in 1806, the seven Dutch congregations retained their privileges, but the State continued to fetter their government. In 1824, when the first synod met, there were twenty-four congregations. Thereafter the synod was held every fifth year. No resolutions could, however, be passed without the approval of the Government, through the political commissioners. Two of these were present in the synod as representatives of the Government. They could suspend any decision until the will of the Governor was known. But in 1843 a 'Church ordinance' was passed, by which the Government recognised the right of the Church to internal regulation, without submitting everything for civil sanction.

In each congregation the consistory is composed of two or more elders and four or more deacons. These officers are appointed only for two years, subject to re-election. They go out in rotation, so that every year some new members are added. There are seven presbyteries, in which each congregation is represented by the minister and a member of the consistory. The synod or assembly is composed of a minister and elder from each congregation. A theological seminary was opened in 1859. It has two professors and twenty-two students, and has furnished twenty-nine ministers to the Church. Home and foreign mission enterprises are also carried on in some ten stations by eight agents. In 1867 the grants from the colonial treasury for ministers' salaries amounted to �8,632, 10s. This sum was divided among forty-seven congregations. No new grants have been made since the Parliament was established in 1851.

The minister of the congregation is elected and called by the consistory. But this is in combination with all the retired members. Notwithstanding, to receive the Government grant, the minister so elected must also have the appointment of the Governor, which is always given.

'Till 1862 the Dutch Church had experience of no struggle of importance, whether external or internal. The leaven of Rationalism, however, which it was well known had been creeping into its pulpits, manifested itself openly in that year. The occasion on which this took place was a debate that arose as to whether the whole of the usual formularies should be read at the administration of such ordinances as Baptism and the Lord's Supper. In that debate the Rev. Mr. Kotze, a young clergyman, took up the negative, and referred to the 60th question in the Dutch Catechism, in which the doctrine of natural depravity is strongly affirmed, and maintained that what was said there could not be true even of a heathen, or he must be a devil. The synod required a retraction of the words, not only because they implied a denial of the doctrine of original sin, but chiefly because the utterance of them in the circumstances made Mr. Kotze unfaithful to his ordination vows. This demand, however, he refused to comply with, and he was first suspended for six months, and finally deposed from the office of the ministry. Against this decision, however, he appealed to the Supreme Court of the colony, and the judges, after asserting in the face of the synod's protest the competency of the tribunal, gave a decision in his favour, and reported him in his charge. The same thing occurred in another case, that of Mr. Burgers of Hanover. One of the judges, indeed, gave an opinion favourable to the Church's plea in that connection, but he was overborne by his colleagues; so that, in so far as the local civil court was concerned, its decisions were adverse to all exercise of spiritual independence.

'An appeal was taken to the Privy Council at home, and there it was argued on two points. First, it was pled that it wasultra vires of the Supreme Court of the colony to take up the case at all; and second, it was discussed under protest on the merits. It seems quite clear, however, that the Privy Council was either incapable of understanding the question submitted to it, or did not put itself to the trouble of trying to understand it; for Lord Westbury, who pronounced the judgment, while deciding in favour of the court below, grossly and admittedly blundered in stating what was the point at issue. At the same time the sentence was practically hostile to the Church's right of self-government; and when the synod met in October 1869, it was keenly felt that a crisis in its history had arrived. There were four courses suggested: to restore the deposed men pure and simple; to restore under protest; to say, "No! we must obey God rather than man;" or to postpone the synod. The last measure was adopted, as best fitted to serve two ends (1.) It was a declaration to this effect: "We cannot restore to a spiritual office men whom we have solemnly deposed, even at the bidding of the majesty in Council;" and (2.) "It gave time and opportunity for the rectification of the blunder which Lord Westbury is allowed to have made."'

In November 1870, the synod of the Dutch Reformed Church met in Cape Town. The synod, as stated, had adjourned in 1867, because the Privy Council had dismissed their appeal. Counsel had stated that the Church would not now be interfered with. For a week the question was discussed whether Messrs. Burgers and Kotze, suspended or deposed, should be restored, as ordered by the civil courts. It was decided to declare the spiritual independence of the Church anew, but to restore these brethren, so as to open up the way for a proper prosecution before the presbyteries — the Church having erred in this respect — a small minority protesting.

AFRICAN CHURCHES.

In the interior many persons were never reconciled to British rule. These, in 1835, went and remained beyond the northern boundary.

In Natal British rule was proclaimed in 1842, when the majority of the Dutch removed. After its colonisation they had been subjected to a terrific slaughter from the natives. There is a presbytery in Natal, composed of four congregations, with 1,200 members.

Natal became a separate colony in 1856, and the European population has increased 50 per cent. since 1879. Much assistance is granted by Government for education.

The Orange Free State comprises 50,000 square miles. It was annexed to British rule in 1848. In 1867 the Basutos were taken under British protection. Here there is a synod, composed of two presbyteries and eleven congregations; and the Dutch Reformed Church prevails, 51,716 of the population belonging to it. The Church of England has a bishop and complete organisation; others have mission stations and churches. Large grants are given for education. There are 61,022 whites, and 72,496 natives.

THE SOUTH AFRICAN REPUBLIC, formerly the Transvaal, extends over 70,000 square miles. It was founded by the Boers from Cape Colony going into Natal in 1835, but quitting it when annexed to Britain. Although its independence had been guaranteed, the Transvaal was annexed to Britain in 1877. This the Boers resisted by arms in 1880, and by the subsequent treaty self-government was restored as to internal affairs — external being reserved, as restricted, to the Queen as Suzerain. The Dutch Reformed Church prevails, but various English Churches are represented, while Government gives assistance to public schools.

There are also Lutheran congregations at the Cape. In 1714 and afterwards German soldiers formed the garrison. It was twenty years after their settlement before they were allowed to assemble for divine service. Two ministers are at the Cape, there being a secession in 1847 from the High Church Lutherans. There is another congregation in Stellenbosch, several in the eastern provinces, and others in Natal. There are in addition five separate congregations without ecclesiastical connection. The Scotch Presbyterian Church at Cape Town was opened in 1828. There is a Presbytery at Natal of the Free Church, consisting of four ministers and two missionaries, although not yet formally recognised. Pietermaritzburg and Impolweni are the chief stations.

Cape Colony has a population of 1,252,347, most of whom belong to the Dutch Reformed Church. There is no State Church, but a certain sum is appropriated annually for 'religious worship' (�10,013 in 1885-6) to the Dutch Reformed, Episcopalian, Presbyterian, and Roman Catholic Churches; but in 1875 an Act was passed for the gradual withdrawal of this grant.

The Kaffrarian mission was founded in 1821 by a Glasgow Society and transferred to the Free Church in 1844. The presbytery embraces six missionaries and a minister of a European congregation. Five of the missionaries are also regularly appointed pastors of native congregations. There are 1,147 native communicants. The chief stations are Lovedale, Pike, Burnshill, Macfarlan, and the Transkei Territory.

TABULAR VIEW OF DUTCH REFORMED CHURCHES IN SOUTH AFRICA.


Cape Colony.

Natal.

Free State.

Transvaal.

Total.

Synods

1

1

1

1

4

Presbyteries

7

2

9

Number of congragations

70

4

11

9

94

Number of ministers

69

4

10

3

86

Total membership

46,961

1,204

7,477

1,562

58,204

The synod of the Dutch Reformed Church is by statute recognised as the Established Church, but since 1875 it receives no financial support from the State. Thus for legal purposes this Church consists only of the congregations in the colony; but for ecclesiastical purposes others in the provinces of Natal, the Orange Free State and the Transvaal are associated as one Church. The Synodical Commission consists of the Moderator, the Assessors, the Actuaries, the Scribe, and sixteen other members.

The Churches in Cape Colony and Natal meet in a provincial synod. The synod of the Republic of the Orange Free State consists of representatives of presbyteries in the Northern, Southern, Eastern, and Western Ringbesturen.

The synod of the Dutch Reformed Church, Orange Free State, has four classes or presbyteries, and one synod composed of all ordained ministers and an elder from each congregation.

The Christian Reformed Church of South Africa is in sympathy with the parent Church in the Netherlands.

Of WEST AFRICAN COLONIES, GAMBIA has a population of 14,045 natives and 105 whites. Of these 5,300 are Mahometans, and 2,385 Christians (Wesleyans).

The separate synod in Cape Colony, which arose from anti-British feeling and a desire for thorough orthodoxy, is very energetic, and has 3 presbyteries, 14 congregations, 7 ministers, and 4,362 members.

IN SOUTH AFRICAN MISSIONS

a basis of union has been agreed to between the Free and United Presbyterian Church Presbyteries; and efforts are made to have one theological school for the training of Presbyterian and Congregational agents, a formula of doctrine having been agreed to by the Home Churches. A missionary labouring with the French amongst the Basutos in South Africa is supported by the Waldensian Church; and a United Mission from the Free Churches of French Switzerland and of Geneva, under direction of a council of twelve, labours amongst the Magwambas in the Transvaal. The ISLAND OF MAURITIUS, in the Indian Ocean, with its harbour of Port Louis, became a British possession in 1810; but in 1814 French laws, customs, and religion were guaranteed. Out of a population of 370,404, 250,861 are Indian; and 108,000 Roman Catholic, with 8,000 Protestants — State aid being granted to both.

MADAGASCAR,

by a treaty signed at Tamatave, 1885, is virtually under the protection of France. A French general, with military escort, resides at the capital, while foreign relations are regulated by France, which occupies the Bay of Diego-Saurez.

A large portion of the Hova and the people in the east and central districts profess Christianity, which is protected as the State religion; 350,000 are Protestant, 35,000 Roman Catholic, while three-fourths are Pagan. The praiseworthy labours of the London Missionary Society there have been greatly impeded by Jesuitical agency.

Society.

Com-
menced.

Sta-
tions.

Mission-
aries.

Agents.

Commu-
nicants.

Cate-
chists.

Adher-
ents.

Schools.

Chil-
dren.

Moravians

1792

18

32

61

2,130

6,703

26

Free Church of Scotland

1821

38

7

42

1,250

203

2,350

17

1,500

United Presbyterian

1821

8

8

21

500

96

1,678

14

523

French Protestant Missions

1830

12

22

2,000

5,000

1,500

American Board

1834

13

12

29

400

1,249

47

723



89

59

175

6,280

296

16,980

104

4,246

At old Calabar, in Upper Guinea, or Western Africa, the United Presbyterian Church has for a long period maintained a successful mission. There are 20 stations, 35 agents, 35 ministers, 110 members, and 411 pupils. The chief places are Creek Town, Duke Town, Ikunetu, and Ikorosiong.

AUSTRALASIA.

"O place me in some heaven-protected isle,
Where peace and equity and freedom smile,
Where no volcano pours his fiery flood,
No crested warrior dips his plume in blood;
Where power secures what industry has won,
Where to succeed is not to be undone."

In VICTORIA

the Rev. S. Clow was the first Presbyterian minister. In 1835 the first white man entered the river Yarra. In 1837 Mr. Clow began to labour. The Rev. J. Forbes was the first minister of a settled charge. The presbytery of Melbourne first met on the 1st June 1842; and in 1846, falling in with the Free Church movement, a Free synod was formed. The United Presbyterians were represented from 1847. So rapidly did the colony develop after the great gold discoveries in 1851, that in 1859 sixty ministers were labouring there. On the 7th April 1853, fifty-three of these brethren, representing all sections, met in Melbourne, and with representative elders constituted the general assembly of the Presbyterian Church of Victoria. An Act of the Colonial Legislature, previously obtained, gave civil effect to that union. Since that time the ministry has increased from 50 to 180, and settlements are being effected all over the colony — not only amongst natives, but for the Chinese, and in the islands of the New Hebrides. At the theological hall, under four professors, one— fourth of the ministers have been trained; and the 'Ormond College' in Melbourne has been largely endowed.

In Victoria, prior to 1875, the sum of �50,000 was given for the advancement of the Christian religion, but there has been no State aid since that date. Of the population the percentage stood thus by the last census: — Protestant, 73 per cent; Roman Catholic, 24 per cent; Jews, half a cent. The numbers were — Anglicans, 352,087; Presbyterians, 149,849; Methodist, 122,504; other Protestants, 74,689; Roman Catholics, 229,917; Jews, 4,894; Pagans (Chinese), 11,000; others, 30,100.

The Melbourne University, opened in 1885, has �11,000 income, and two affiliated colleges — Trinity and Ormond — Anglican and Presbyterian, with 483 students. Education is compulsory, free, and secular; but the exclusion of religion is mourned over by many who at first so advised. In 1884 it was estimated that 94 per cent. were being educated, the cost being �559,660. Secondary education is usually under the control of religious denominations; and Roman Catholics have 172 schools apart from State control.

NEW SOUTH WALES.

'By reference to the map,' said Mr. Forbes, 20th December 1838, 'you will perceive that Port Phillip is in the southern part of the territory of New South Wales. Three years ago its only inhabitants were the indigenous population; now it also has a population of several thousand white men. Melbourne, the capital, was, two and a half years since, mere forest, or bush as we call it. Now it has between three and four hundred houses, and a population not short of 1,000.' How strange these statements appear, though made so recently, regarding a district now numbering about a million of inhabitants, and a city which, with its suburbs, contains some 200,000 souls! What would Mr. Forbes have thought when he penned his account of the wonderful progress then achieved, if he had imagined that in the lifetime of many it would be quoted for the sake of exhibiting the prodigious strides taken after he wrote, and the contrast between his description and the present state of things?

The extraordinary material progress of Victoria has outstripped that of the parent colony of which it formed a part, and the growth of the Church in New South Wales has also proceeded at a more moderate rate.

The Rev. Dr. Lang was the first Presbyterian minister in 1823. In 1831 five others had arrived. In 1840 the disunited branches were formed into the synod of Australia. In 1842 Dr. Lang seceded, and in 1846 the synod of Eastern Australia was formed on Free Church principles. In 1864 that synod and the synod of New South Wales united, under the designation of 'The Presbyterian Church in New South Wales.' In 1865 a further union of this body with the Established Church party and the United Presbyterians was formed. This is known as the Presbyterian Church of New South Wales.

New South Wales is a colony of 'genuine British people,' with all its principal Churches represented. The relative position is stated thus:— Episcopalian, 45 per cent; Roman Catholic, 28 per cent; Presbyterian, 10 per cent. Of 870,000 of a population there are 87,000 Presbyterians. These are scattered over the colony, while spiritual oversight and organisation is being earnestly pursued at 476 centres,

RELIGIOUS ENUMERATION — NEW SOUTH WALES, 1885.

Various or no religion, 18,776; Pagans, 11,882; Protestants, 662,635; Roman Catholics, 264,692; Jews, 4,215. The Protestants — comparative position — stand thus: — Anglicans, 435,883; Presbyterians, 92,542; Methodists, 82,195.

Title.

Churches.

Ministers.

Attendance.

Anglican

556

278

74,535

Presbyterian

219

126

26,570

Methodist

335

124

45,467

Others

178

114

24,295

The university of Sydney had 37 professors, 203 students, and �20,338 income Education and three colleges are under the control of the State.

THE SYNOD OF EASTERN AUSTRALIA

was formed in 1846 by the secession from the synod of Australia of three ministers and a large body of people. On November 15, 1864, the synod was dissolved by the moderator for the purpose of uniting with the synod of New South Wales. Several ministers entered protests, and claimed the right of retaining the designation They continue separate in seven congregations.

St. Andrew's College, within the university of Sydney, was erected by Presbyterians. The Government offered, in terms of the Colleges Act, �10,000, and �500 a year to the principal, provided �10,000 be raised by subscription. Of twelve governors, four are Presbyterian ministers. The moderator of assembly is their visitor. Control as to doctrine is vested in the presbytery of Sydney, which appoints the professor of divinity. A legacy of �10,000 endows two of the professorial chairs.

TASMANIA

from 1804 was a convict establishment. Free immigrants arrived in 1820. The Rev. A. Macarthur in 1822 arrived in Hobart Town. In 1835 the presbytery of Van Diemen's Land was constituted, apart from Mr. Macarthur. After a struggle this presbytery obtained public recognition. In 1837 an Act of Legislature put all churches on an equality as regards aid from the public treasury, and in a short time ten congregations were organised and had churches built, with a minister for every 700 Presbyterians in the colony. In 1845 an attempt was made by the then bishop of the Church of England in Van Diemen's Land to obtain ecclesiastical authority over all the inhabitants of the island, which was resisted by the Presbyterians, who had influence enough to get the bishop's letters-patent revoked, and to get a rule recognised limiting the power of English bishops in these colonies to the superintendence of their own clergy. Since the discovery of gold on the neighbouring continent, and especially since the cessation of imperial expenditure in connection with the convict system, all interests have drooped in Tasmania, and the Presbyterian Church is in a less flourishing state there now than it was several years ago. Tasmania is the only colony in Australasia in which the various sections of Presbyterians have not yet united in one Church. There are (1) the presbytery of Tasmania, with twelve congregations; and (2) the Free presbytery of Tasmania, with four congregations. More than half the population are Anglican, with 22 per cent Roman Catholic, and 27 per cent illiterate.

WESTERN AUSTRALIA.

In 1881 religious divisions were — Anglicans, 16,263, or 54.74 per cent; Roman Catholics, 8,413, or 28.32 per cent; Wesleyans, 2,084, or 7.01 per cent; Independents, 1,262, or 4.25 per cent; Presbyterians, 1,004, or 3.38 per cent; other religions, 329, or 1.11 per cent; unnamed, 209, or 0.29 per cent. Education is compulsory; 9.93 per cent were illiterate.

SOUTH AUSTRALIA.

The Rev. R. Drummond, formerly of the United Presbyterian Church, Crail, was the first Presbyterian minister. From 1839 he formed a congregation in Adelaide. The Free Church branch was formed by the Rev. J. Gardner in 1850 — the Rev. R. Haining having laboured in connection with the Church of Scotland. On the 10th May 1865 a union was formed. It consists of 13 congregations and 14 ministers.

The South Australian census of 1871 showed 50,849 persons — men, women, and children — described as belonging to the Church of England; this number is 27.39 per cent of the whole population. The Roman Catholics have 28,668, or 15.44 per cent of the population; the Wesleyan Methodists, 27,075, or 14.59 per cent; the Lutherans, 15,412, or 8.30 per cent; the Presbyterians, 13,371, or 7.20 per cent; the Baptists; 8,731, or 4.70 per cent; the Primitive Methodists, 8,207, or 4.42 per cent; the Congregationalists, 7,969, or 4.29 per cent; the Bible Christians, 7,758, or 4.18 per cent.

The remainder of the population comprises some members of smaller denominations, with 5,436 objecting to answer, and 3,802 whose religion is not stated. The Wesleyans and the Roman Catholics show the largest numerical increase since 1861. The total population in 1871 was 185,626; the census of 1881 counts Anglicans as 75,812; Roman Catholics, 42,628; and Methodists at 42,103.

QUEENSLAND.

The first minister who arrived in Moreton Bay was the late Rev. T. Mowbray, in 1847. That district in 1869 was proclaimed the separate colony of Queensland. A union forming the Presbyterian Church of Queensland was consummated in 1863. In 1868 there were 13,179 Presbyterians, the total population being 99,312. Now in a population of 300,000 there are 30,000 Presbyterians, but only 23 ordained ministers.

In Queensland the principal religious denominations retain, free of taxation, original grants of land, but there is no State Church. The proportion to the population in 1881 was — Anglican, 34.62; Roman Catholic, 25.47; Presbyterian, 10.59; other Protestants, 19.48; other religions, 9.07. Education is compulsory, but unenforced. 29.44 were illiterate, as were 5.56 of persons married.

NEW ZEALAND.

The Rev. D. Bruce of Auckland gives the following interesting account: — 'This colony is situated in the Pacific Ocean, about a thousand miles to the south-east of the Australian continent, and stretching from 34� to 47� south latitude. Keeping in view its configuration, its extreme length may be estimated at a thousand miles, its average breadth at a hundred. It consists of a group of three islands, known as the North, Middle, and South, separated from each other by narrow straits; but, for all practical purposes, the colony may be said to be restricted to the two main islands, the North and the Middle. As might be inferred from its extremes of latitude, its climate is finely graduated; so that, while in the far south you may have a climate not unlike to that of Scotland, it becomes milder as you proceed northwards, till at the remote north you find it partake of a true semi-tropical character. As may be easily understood from the near approach of the ocean on both sides, there is all over the colony a very considerable modification of the climate, so that it seldom or never happens that either from cold in the south, or from heat in the north, a cessation from out-door labour becomes at all necessary. The general salubrity of the country, thus accounted for, very naturally made it be thought of by intending emigrants; and accordingly, by means of the agencies that have at various times been set on foot, these have poured in upon its shores in steady stream, till its European population may be said to reckon nearly half a million of souls. This progress, if it be remembered that the colony is not of much more than thirty years' standing, and that its settlement has been carried forward in the face of peculiar internal difficulties, especially in the North Island, where the native population chiefly resides, may, without exaggeration, be said to be great.

'The seaboard of New Zealand may, on a rough estimate, be said to be about four thousand miles in extent; and this, coupled with the fact that its interior is to a very large extent of a mountainous character, determined the mode of its settlement. It was not at one point, but at several points, that its enterprising colonists took possession of its extensive coasts, according as a good harbour or good land might guide their choice. Wellington, at the extreme south of the North Island; Nelson, at the extreme north of the Middle Island; and Taranaki, on the west side of the North Island, were settled by the New Zealand Land Company, which existed in England, and comprised not a few of the members of Parliament. Canterbury, on the east coast of the Middle Island, was a settlement formed under the auspices of the Church of England; and Otago, including all the southern extremity of the Middle Island, was established by an association connected with the Free Church of Scotland; while Auckland, situated towards the northern part of the North Island, arose in virtue of the selection of its site by Governor Hobson as the seat of the Colonial Government. From these six points as centres, the population has, for the most part, extended along the coasts and into the interior, as circumstances might direct. The discovery of gold has within the last ten years been the chief object in attracting a large population to the west coast of the Middle Island, the interior of Otago, and the Thames Gulf in the vicinity of Auckland.

'The original mode of settlement, resulting as it did in the creation of six far-separated and independent communities, very naturally suggested the idea of the peculiar constitution afterwards conferred upon the colony, and brought into operation in 1853. That constitution was drawn up by the master-hand of Sir George Grey, the Governor of the colony for the time being. This shrewd and observant statesman, inspired by the spirit of the age, and taking a true view of the circumstances of the colony, shaped its constitution as nearly as possible after the model of government furnished in the polity of the Presbyterian Church. Each of the six different and remote points of settlement was recognised as the centre of a province, and invested with power to regulate all matters of merely local interest, which power might in a less degree be afterwards conferred upon municipal or rural boards; while all the six provinces, having the country apportioned amongst them, were entitled, according to their population, to send representatives to what is called "The General Assembly," to which body belong all the higher legislative functions, and whose enactments are binding upon the whole colony. These original provinces have, in some instances, been sub-divided, and the number has thus been increased to nine, but the principle of the constitution has nevertheless remained the same, and though not free from faults in the estimation of some, it is yet well suited to the country, and works well on the whole. It remains only to be added here, that these several points of settlement, thus constituted the headquarters of provincial institutions, became the natural centres of the Church's influence — the seats of her presbyteries so soon as they could be formed, as in most cases they ultimately will be of her provincial synods or assemblies.

'The ecclesiastical history of New Zealand, in so far as it concerns the Presbyterian Church, dates from the year 1840. In the course of that year, the Rev. John Macfarlane was sent out by the Colonial Committee of the Church of Scotland to take the spiritual oversight of the members of the Church resident at Wellington. During the ten succeeding years, clergymen were sent out by the Free Church of Scotland to Nelson, Otago, and Auckland, according as immigration was directed to these several places. Thereafter the extension of the Church, like that of the colony, became more rapid.... In the part of the colony over which the Presbyterian Church of New Zealand exercises ecclesiastical care — including the whole of the North Island, and the provinces of Nelson, Marlborough, and Canterbury, in the Middle Island — there are not fewer than 115 churches, schools, and manses, while in the provinces of Otago and Southland, where the Presbyterian population is most numerous, there is at the least an equal number. It will thus be seen that throughout the whole length of New Zealand, extending over upwards of a thousand miles, there have been 230 ecclesiastical structures built, for the most part, during the last twenty years — at the rate of fully 10 per year — by the agency of comparatively a handful of people, and, in the great majority of cases, without any aid extraneous to the Church.

'The general organisation of the Church began in 1855. In that year the presbytery of Otago was constituted; and the presbytery of Auckland was constituted the year following. In 1861 negotiations were entered into between these two presbyteries for the purpose of uniting the Church throughout the whole extent of the colony into one organisation; but eventually the brethren in the provinces of Otago and Southland preferred to have a distinct organisation of their own. There thus came to be two general organisations, known as the Church of Otago and Southland, and the Presbyterian Church of New Zealand; in no wise antagonistic, but co— operative, not only in spirit but in act, sending deputies to their respective supreme courts, and destined, at no distant day, to become visibly one, as they already are in heart and in work. The synod of Otago consists at present of three presbyteries; takes the ecclesiastical care of the provinces of Otago and Southland, as also of the South, or Stewart Island; and is making vigorous and efficient efforts to supply the spiritual wants of the numerous members of the Church in these parts of the colony. The whole of the rest of the colony — comprising seven provinces, and a territory fully eight hundred miles in length — is under the spiritual supervision of the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church of New Zealand, consisting at present of five presbyteries. Now, throughout this great range of territory, there are many districts where there are considerable numbers of our countrymen who are living without any provision for their religious culture.'

(1.) THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH OF NEW ZEALAND

comprises 5 presbyteries, with 58 congregations. Most of the churches are used as schools. The assembly is to meet biennially.

(2.) THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH OF OTAGO AND SOUTHLAND

embraces the southern portion of the Middle Island, and the Southern or Stewart Island. The two Churches send friendly deputations to each other's assemblies.

The settlement of Otago was founded by an association of gentlemen in connection with the Free Church of Scotland, the Rev. D. Burns accompanying the first settlers in 1848 to Dunedin. In 1854 the Presbytery was constituted. In 1861 negotiations for union were broken off. In 1865 the Church was subdivided into three presbyteries, and next year the synod was constituted. This Church has a general sustentation fund, out of which all receive an equal dividend. Had it not been for this fund, churches could not have been planted in many of the districts. As the province of Southland has been re-united to Otago, the designation proper will be the Presbyterian Church of Otago. In the three presbyteries there are thirty-three charges.

A mission to the Maories was begun in 1869, also in the New Hebrides and to the Chinese.

Besides the sites of all churches and manses, an estate belongs to the Church, which forms a valuable endowment. It consists of a number of sections in the city of Dunedin, and some suburban and country districts, amounting in all to 1300 acres. This came to the Church chiefly through the Otago association. Of every eight properties sold by the association one property was allowed to the Church. These Church properties have become very valuable, although the revenue as yet is small. When Government schools were established, one-third of the revenue devoted to education was applied to university education, in the endowment of the chair of mental and moral philosophy. The other two-thirds constitute the ecclesiastical fund, devoted to the building or repairing of manses and churches, &c. Two hundred pounds is given to the building of every manse.

Three other properties were the gift of the New Zealand Company, on the birthday of the settlement. For these Crown grants were issued in name of the superintendent of the province, in trust for the Church. The sites on which — (1.) The first manse was erected; (2.) The first church and school; and (3.) That on Church Hill, where the first church is being built. After the opening of the gold-fields of Otago, the first site, at the head of the principal jetty, being unsuitable, by order of the Provincial Council this was leased, and the proceeds devoted to the erection of a church and repairs of others throughout the province. The second site was set apart for a college, and the third for a church and manse. A manse was built with this at a cost of �2000, and the synod voted �10,000 towards the church, which is to cost �14,000.

'The immigrants for some years were mainly, though not exclusively, Presbyterians. With the gold discovery in 1861 a change came, and thenceforth the representatives of several nationalities and religions crowded to our shores. Great as was the excitement which accompanied the rush of population thirsting for gold, yet through the influence of government, education, and religion, all parties gradually sank down to the safe working level. Those among the recent settlers who could not with comfort avail themselves of religious ordinances as dispensed by our conservative Church, set about getting them after their own order and liking. It is, however, to the credit alike oft the Old Identity, as the original settlers were happily termed, and the more pushing immigrants of the gold time, that they respected each other's predilections and prejudices, and rendered to each other cheerful and substantial assistance in their building operations.'

IN NEW ZEALAND, at the present time, Anglican and Free Churches retain original endowments, but otherwise there is no State recognition. The percentage of population in 1881 was — Anglican, 41.50 (exclusive of Maories); Presbyterian, 23.09; Methodists and others, 9.52. Protestants numbered 387,767; Roman Catholics, 68,984, or 14.08 per cent; Jews, 1,536; Pagans, 9,436; unnamed, 13,978. The university of New Zealand has 3 affiliated 'colleges — Dunedin*, Otago, 8 chairs and 9 lectureships; Christchurch*, Canterbury, 6 chairs, 2 lectureships; Auckland, 4 chairs and 1 lectureship. Two of the colleges (marked *) are munificently endowed. �427,904 was in 1885-6 expended on education, which is compulsory; and at the primary schools, free and secular, 7.91 per cent (exclusive of Maories and Chinese) in 1881 could neither read nor write.

The population has increased from 26,707 in 1851 to 578,482 in 1886.

POPULATION OF NEW ZEALAND.

The census of New Zealand was taken on the night of Sunday, the 28th of March 1886. According to the official returns, the population of the colony, exclusive of Maories, was 578,482, or, adding the natives and half-castes — who amount to 41,969 — the grand total was 620,451. The males considerably outnumber the females, as in all newly-developed countries. There are 74 'boroughs' in the colony, but only one of these exceeds 30,000 in population, while nine have less than 500 inhabitants each. Auckland has largely increased, Wellington has slightly advanced, Christchurch is stationary, and Dunedin has slightly decreased. There are 197 'towns' in New Zealand, but 82 of them have less than 100 inhabitants, while Devonport, the most populous, has only 2,650 inhabitants. Throughout the whole colony there are only 5,561 persons to the square mile. Inhabited houses have greatly improved, for while there is a decrease of 2,648 in two-roomed houses, there was an increase of 5,026 in those having three and four rooms, an increase of 7,880 in those of five and six rooms, and of 5,693 in those of more than six rooms. Out of the whole population of New Zealand, 51.89 per cent are native born, 21.72 come from England, 9.48 from Scotland, 8.89 from Ireland, 0.34 from Wales. With respect to education, 73.52 are able to read and write, 4.77 able to read only, and 21.05 unable to do either. It is calculated that only about 2.6 per cent of the children of the compulsory school age are being wholly neglected. The native races in New Zealand are decreasing, while those of European stock are rapidly multiplying.

AFRICAN ORGANISATIONS —imperfect.


Ministers.

Medical Agents.

Mem-
bers.

Home Church.

Remarks.

For.

Nat.

For.

Nat.

NORTH AFRICA—








Egypt

10

9

17

145

1,450

U.P.C., U.S.

Home C. Pres. work

amongst Copts.

WEST AFRICA—








Calabar

6

2

8

12

199

U.P.C., Scot.

Indep. Pres.

Corisco and Gaboon

7

2

15

21

491

P.C., No. U.S.

Synod, N. Jersey.

Liberia

4

1

5

276

"

Synod of Pen., U.S.

EAST AFRICA—








Blantyre

1

3

Est. C., Scot.

SOUTH AFRICA—








Kaffraria

10

1

14

1,339

U.P.C., Scot.

Pres. of District.

"

8

2

23

64

2,452

Free C., Scot.

W. Congo, O.F.S.

Cape Colony and Natal

6

3

38

302

"

"

2

Est. C., Scot.

CENTRAL AFRICA—








Livinstonia, L. Nyassa

2

5

5

5

Free C., Scot.


56

16

80

229

6,434



WEST INDIA ISLANDS.


Ministers.

Med. Agents.

Members.

Home Church.

For.

Nat.

For.

Nat.

TRINIDAD

9

2

2

55

600

Var. Churches

AMERICA.







NORTH AMERICA—







Indian tribes

16

9

37

16

1,290

P.C., N. U.S.

"

3

8

3

5

906

P.C., S. U.S.

"

4

8

13

350

Cumb. P.C., U.S.

"

2

1

3

2

124

P.C., Canada

Mexico

2

2

4

6

250

Cumb. P.C., U.S.

"

1

1

2

50

A.R.C., S. U.S.

SOUTH AMERICA—







Brazil— Rio de Janeiro

7

3

7

6

439

P.C., S. U.S.

U.S. Columbia

2

3

2

34

P.C., N. U.S.

Chili

6

5

2

272

British Guiana

10

E.C., Scot.


62

33

65

111

4,515



Title.

Ministers.

Churches.

Attendance.

Anglican

556

278

74,535

Presbyterian

219

126

26,570

Methodist

335

124

45,467

Others

178

114

24,295

TABLE OF AUSTRALIAN PRESBYTERIAN CHURCHES.

Church.

Presby-
teries

Congre-
gations

Minis-
ters.

Elders.

Commu-
nicants.

Adher-
ents.

S.S.
Teachers.

S.S.
Scholars.

P.C. of Victoria

10

186

140

300

11,000

149,849

1,874

18,823

U.P. Synod, Victoria

1

7

6

F. Synod, Victoria

1

2

2

P. of South Australia

1

13

14

4,457

13,871

P. of Tasmania

1

12

10

F.P. of Tasmania

1

4

4

Western Australia

1

1

1

335

1,004

P.C., New South Wales

7

219

126

8,857

26,570

Synod of E. Australia

1

7

5

P.C., Queensland

4

16

13

10,000

30,000

P.C., New Zealand

5

58

40

P.C., Otago and Southland

3

35

36

27,511

P. Mission, New Hebridees

10

10

Unconected

3


36

570

410

Incom-

plete

52,260

220,794

1,874

18,823

RELIGIOUS POPULATION—AMERICA AND AUSTRALIA.

State.

Roman Catholics.

Protestants.

Jews.

United States

6,143,000

42,800,000

110,000

Canada

2,150,000

2,100,000

Spanish America

33,340,000

115,000

47,000

West Indies

2,480,000

1,030,000

Australia

604,000

2,220,000

1,000

CHURCHES IN AUSTRALASIA.


Churches.

Ministers.

People.

Episcopal

1,398

659

982,000

Roman Catholic

791

378

581,000

Methodist

1,608

359

399,000

Presbyterian

1,046

370

364,000

Various

1,170

389

535,000


6,013

2,155

2,861,000

THEIR DISTRIBUTION OVER AUSTRALIA.

Colonies.

Churches.

Ministers.

Sabbath Schools.

New South Wales

1,330

706

1,285

Victoria

2,843

759

1,557

South Australia

725

165

570

New Zealand

553

277

360

Queensland

172

76

100

Tasmania

319

139

112

West Australia

71

33

40


6,013

2,155

4,024

THE FEDERAL COUNCIL OF AUSTRALASIA

was formed in 1885, to deal with matters of common Australian interest — a session of the Council to be held at least in every two years. It has been partially accomplished by a Council representing Victoria, Queensland, Tasmania, Western Australia, and Fiji. The colonies of New South Wales and New Zealand were unrepresented at the first meeting at Hobart in 1886.

A FEDERAL UNION, if not Organic, is also proposed, by which all sections of Presbyterianism in the Australian colonies will be united.

THE FEDERAL ASSEMBLY OF THE AUSTRALIAN AND TASMANIAN PRESBYTERIAN CHURCHES.

The second meeting was held in Melbourne on September 14, 1887. The Rev. Dr. Cameron, of Richmond, N.S.W., Moderator. This Assembly has a representative character, and of course does not present outwardly such an imposing aspect as the Melbourne or the New South Wales General Assembly, which embraces the members of all the Presbyteries of the Church. Still the number of the members of the Federal Assembly would exceed one hundred, forming about one-third of the total membership of the Supreme Courts of the five different colonies.

CONGREGATIONAL FEDERATION.

At the Inter-Colonial Conference in celebration of the Jubilee of Congregationalism in Australia, held in 1887, in a paper by the Rev. Professor A. Gosman on 'Imperial Federation and Congregationalism,' he asked 'if there could be any doubt that Imperial Federation would give rise to the necessity for an Imperial Congregational Council, which would hold to the Empire the same relation as the Congregational Union of England and Wales does to those regions?' He confessed that 'the Independency of to-day was more highly organised, and certainly more complex, than it was fifty years ago.' Thus they will soon, to all appearance, be more Presbyterian than the Presbyterians. Intellectual culture is greatly promoted by the thorough organisation of the Melbourne Public Library. This is the chief of 140 free libraries in Victoria. In an admirably adjusted building every facility and freedom is given to readers. Cases of 50 selected books, which are set up where received, are forwarded at the expense of transit over the country. Thus Dr. Cameron Lees tells that in 1879 from 800 to 1,600 volumes were sent to 25 towns — in all 6,110.

AUSTRALIAN EXPERIENCE.

Remarking on his mission to the Scots Church, 1887, "Dr. Cameron Lees ought to take home with him," says the Melbourne Argus, "the records of a useful experience to a city which is politically and ecclesiastically troubled. He has become acquainted with the practical working of a voluntary Church, and he will be the better able to judge of the effect that would follow upon the destruction of the Establishment. He will have material for deciding, not theoretically but practically, whether it is preferable to have many sects, or to retain a broad and tolerant State Church. He will have noticed that where disestablishment exists, the voluntary contributions do not seem to be sufficient for all the purposes of religion and there is a constant and illogical demand that the State should teach religion in the schools, though it is not supposed to interfere with the churches. Dr. Lees has, of course, learnt something of the real views of the colonists on Imperial questions."

THE NEW HEBRIDES

received their name from Captain Cook. There are thirty islands with 150,000 inhabitants — gradually reduced by barbaric practices. On the 20th November 1839, John Williams and Mr. Harris landed, and were massacred at Erromanga. Mr. T. Heath located teachers there in 1840. Presbyterian missions commenced two years later. Thirteen natives were baptised in 1852, and many others were under instruction. Messrs. Geddie and Inglis labour at Aneityum, where there are 320 communicants, 4 stations, 29 schools, in a population of 763. Now, life is pure and property respected. The mission represents eight Churches: — (1) Free Church of Scotland, (2) Presbyterian Church of Canada, (3) Victoria, (4) Tasmania, (5) New Zealand, (6) Otago, (7) South Australia, and (8) New South Wales. The missionaries meet annually in 'Mission Synod.' This is a conference as to evangelistic work, no presbytery having been formed.

CHINA.

"China, I breathe for thee a brother's prayer:
Unnumbered are thy millions. Father! hear
The groans we cannot! Oh, Thine arm make bare,
And reap Thy harvest of salvation there —
The fulness of the Gentile, like a sea
Immense, O God, be gathered unto Thee!
Then Israel save, and with His saintly train,
Send us Immanuel over all to reign."

— H. G. Guiness.

In 1847, the Rev. William Burns was sent forth as the first missionary of the English Presbyterian Church to the Chinese empire. China is a compact territory. It includes more than a million square miles. Two noble rivers flow down its centre, and fertilise the most populous region in the world. The ocean, sprinkled with islands, washes its eastern and southern shores. The present population cannot be less than 360,000,000, or a third of the world's inhabitants. 'This was the appropriate field selected for the foreign missions of this Church' ('China and the Chinese Mission,' by the Rev. J. Hamilton). The religion of the Chinese is a strange medley of diverse creeds. The Nestorian Church in Persia entered this field as early as the eighth century. Others in the several centuries followed. In 1806, Robert Morrison was its first Protestant missionary. The Anglo-Chinese College was founded at Malacca in 1818, and several ports were opened by the treaty of Nanking, 1842. Notwithstanding the great labours of Morrison and others, the language remains the mightiest barrier to evangelistic effort. Mr. Burns soon overcame that and other difficulties, after a wonderful and successful life-labour, pioneering the gospel at Canton, Amoy, Peking, and Nieu-chwang, and other places, until his death in 1868. (See 'Life,' by Dr. Islay Burns.)

THE MISSION AIM IN CHINA

is not only to evangelise, dealing with individuals, but so to organise the Church, as to bring the nation into subjection to Christ Jesus. A native Church, self-governing, self-supporting, self-propelling, and propagating is that which must be earnestly and vigorously built up. The work is not to transplant the home Church in foreign lands, but out of the seed sown to secure that a vigorous and indigenous native tree spring up whose goodly branches may fill the land. Consequently, the efforts of all true Presbyterian missionaries must go on the line of having but one Presbyterian Church. A true native Church, self-governing and independent even of its mother Church or Churches is the ultimate goal to be reached. How this has been accomplished is thus graphically told:

'The Presbytery of Chang-Chew and Chin-Chew in China was formed twenty years ago. The missionaries of the Reformed Church in America, and those of the English Presbyterian Church, wrought side by side in Amoy, and in closest ecclesiastical union. The Chinese knew that we were really one, and that notwithstanding individual peculiarities. As the number of Christians grew, congregations were organised, elders and deacons elected and ordained, and consistories or sessions formed. Such was the blessing and such the success, that speedily these brethren had to face the ordination and induction of native pastors, and consequently the formation of a Classis or Presbytery. How was this to be done? We knew that it was out of the question to attempt anything except a Chinese Church, self-governing and supreme within its own sphere. And so we went on and formed a Presbytery. When formed, its sederunt consisted of 3 American, 2 English Presbyteries, and 7 or 8 native members. The English Presbyterian approved, the American disapproved, but the latter on remonstrance rescinded their action, told the missionaries that they had confidence in them, and wished them God's best blessing. This Presbytery has 5 or 6 American and British, and 30 native members, and all its operations have proved an unspeakable blessing to that part of China.' — Rev. W. S. Swanson.

THE EMPIRE OF JAPAN

was opened to foreigners in 1867. All Protestant Missions in this 'Land of the Rising Sun,' early desired to co-operate in the formation of one native Church. Although this large hope has not been realised, a branch of the Evangelical Alliance exists, and the 'Council of the Three Missions' has been inaugurated. These are the mission of the Presbyterian Church of the United States, of the Reformed Church of America, and of the United Presbyterian Church of Scotland. The union, which has been approved by the Home Churches, hold as standards the Shorter and Heidelberg Catechisms, the Westminster Confession of Faith, and the Canons of the Synod of Dort. After consideration it was agreed, on the motion of natives, that the Foreign Missionary, as Missionary, should officially have a seat in the Presbytery, while the Missions as such have neither place nor vote.

The designation is 'the Union Church of Christ in Japan.' A volume of 143 pages contains the form of Church Government, Directory for Worship, and Book of Discipline. One theological school and other happy issues are the result. To this the missionaries with one voice testify. Dr. Hepburn of Yokohama says, — 'The working of the Union could not be more satisfactory. Jealousies and contentions are not, while all work together in fraternal love and mutual help. We have a synod and three presbyteries, in which business is conducted by native brethren with regularity, order, and intelligence. Presbyterianism has a strong hold on Japan. It suits the native temper and taste, and it would survive and grow if all the missionaries were expelled. The New Testament has been translated, and also a good part of the Old, which are being widely distributed.' All this encourages the hope that Japan will be a land on which the Sun of Righteousness will speedily arise.

MISSIONS IN INDIA.

'The past fifty years of the Queen's reign form the second half of the missionary century, which, in 1786, William Carey began by writing his survey of the religious condition of the human race. When, in 1837, Her Majesty succeeded to the throne, Carey had been three years dead. John Wilson was consolidating our Bombay Mission under the General Assembly, and John Anderson was founding our Madras Mission. Younger than both, Alexander Duff, having created the Calcutta Mission, passed from church to church and Presbytery to Presbytery throughout Scotland forming Quarterly Missionary Associations, which Dr. Chalmers eulogised and imitated.

'The Victorian has been emphatically the Missionary era. Since the immediately post-apostolic days no half-century of the Church's history has recorded a similar advance, although that advance is relatively small in the light of the unexampled growth of population even in non-Christian lands. The ten missionary organisations of the United Kingdom have become sixty-five; the twenty-seven of all evangelical Christendom have increased to a hundred and eighty-five. The sum of half a million sterling raised to evangelise the world has grown five-fold — to two millions and a half. The living converts then under 400,000 now form native Christian communities three millions strong. The missionary band, ordained and unordained, was then 760 strong, and not twelve of these were women and natives; now it is a host of nearly 40,000, of whom 2,000 are women besides missionaries' wives; 33,000 are natives, and of these 3,000 are ordained. Besides all that Carey and his imitators had done to translate the Word of God, we see now in other forty-one languages the Old Testament and in other sixty-four languages the New Testament. Our Empire has grown till we have become responsible for a fourth of mankind. The English-speaking race were only twenty two millions strong when Carey made his survey; we have increased at the rate of nearly a million a year, till in and outside of Christendom we are 113 millions strong. Our wealth has swollen even more rapidly. Our mother tongue, the Queen's English, has become the Christianising and civilising speech of earth, carrying to the thousand millions, who are still barbarians in the Hellenic sense, even as Greek influenced the hundred millions of the Roman Empire, that Divine revelation which, to all who believe it, is the power of God and the wisdom of God unto salvation. Save in the very heart of Asia — Mohammedan, Buddhist, and Russian — the Spirit of God has opened every door, as our fathers prayed." — Fifty-Seventh Foreign, Mission Report to Free Church Assembly.

In 1829, the Rev. Alexander Duff was sent as the first missionary of the Church of Scotland to India. In addition to ordinary methods of operation, the plan he introduced, and which is still carried out, was to give to the youth of Bengal a superior Christian education through the medium of the English language, with a view specially to the conversion of the scholars, and to the raising up of a thoroughly qualified staff of preachers and teachers. From the educational missions established, thousands of educated youth have gone forth, either converted to or favourably impressed towards Christianity. In 1843, the whole thirteen missionaries labouring in India adhered to the Free Church. At Calcutta, Chinsurah, Bansberia, Culna, Alahanad, Pachamba, in Eastern; at Bombay, Puna, Indapur, and Julna, in Western India; and at Madras, Nagpore, and amongst the Gonds, these missions are effectively carried on by a large staff. There are 50 stations, 177 agents, an aggregate membership of 656 to 1,114 since the commencement, and 8,000 pupils under Christian instruction. In 1870, �4,000 was paid in school fees, �4,507 received in Government grants, whilst �3,500 was contributed by Christian friends in India. There are three presbyteries, who return an equal number of elders and missionaries to the General Assembly. At Madras, Puna, Nagpore, &c., the European congregation is supplied by the missionaries.

A chair of Evangelistic Theology, of which the late Dr. Duff had been appointed professor in Scotland — and who gave his services gratuitously — will give a great impetus to foreign missions in India and elsewhere. For this purpose �10,000 was contributed by generous friends, the majority of whom, though not members of, had confidence in, the Free Church.

THE PRESBYTERIAN MISSION ALLIANCE

is a farther step towards true unity of successful aim and action. The divisions of the thirteen Evangelical Presbyterian Missions in India are felt to be a great source of weakness. Hence efforts have been made to secure union and co-operation. A 'Plea for a Presbyterian Church' was published in 1863. Organic union was discussed in 1865 by the American Presbyterian Synod of North India. A conference was held at Allahabad, January 1871. One proposal was that in the several provinces synods should be formed out of the Mission Presbyteries. Another, that meanwhile an alliance of all Presbyterian Missions in India should be formed. This last was preferred, and in November of that year a basis and constitution were adopted. The first meeting was held in 1877, the second in 1880, and the third in 1884. Only a few of the thirteen Home Churches consented to allow this alliance to act as a court of appeal in regard to native questions, which are best understood in India. A United College for the training of native pastors was also desired, and that by means of the English language. This plan also had to be meanwhile abandoned. The clustering together of Missions and Presbyteries has been recommended, as also the formation of these into Synods, and that in the hope that a General Alliance or Assembly would be the ultimate result. This scheme for India awaiting the sanction of the Home Churches has already resulted in hopeful union in China, Japan, the New Hebrides, and South Africa. It is also earnestly pressed that at the least Divinity Classes, in particular districts where one vernacular is spoken, might be united with excellent effect. Defences and Expositions of the Doctrines and Polity of the Presbyterian Church are also in great request, no formula or Catechism having as yet been translated into the several vernaculars; and no systematic attempt having as yet been made to instruct and to defend, notwithstanding that such action is constantly taken by others. Child marriages, Polygamy, Persecution in some districts also require to be exposed.

MISSION PRESBYTERIES.

When a Mission Congregation is organised, and a native ruling eldership ordained, the elder appointed by its session at once obtains his seat and rights in the Presbytery which is thus organised at the earliest moment. From its position it is a Foreign Presbytery, and is accountable to and represented in the Home Church; but in its organisation, relations, and work, it is essentially the same as others. The Missionary Association, however, is composed of missionaries alone; and it controls all supplies sent from the Home Church. Thus adherence is given to the principle that Presbyterianism is the scriptural form of Government and oversight both at home and abroad. There is power in the principle that places those who sent the Gospel along with those who accept of it in spiritual unity to act and co-operate together for God's glory and man's good. Thus Caste is destroyed and the command of Christ obeyed in loving and preferring one another. The Presbyterian Church, United States, has 17 Mission Presbyteries and 2 Synods.

PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN COLONIES AND DEPENDENCIES

Title.

Synods.

Presby-
teries.

Congre-
gations.

Minis-
ters.

Elders.

Mem-
bers.

Dutch Ref. C, S. Africa

2

11

140

143

58,204

Christian Ref. C., S. Africa

9

Dutch F. C., Orange F. State

80

Presbytery of Ceylon

1

19

6

20

645

P.C. of Eastern Australia

1

4

11

12

22

273

P.C., New South Wales

11

89

95

205

4,816

P.C. of Queensland

4

33

21

25,000

Presbytery of South Australia

1

32

12

63

1,515

P.C. of Victoria

12

283

164

490

17,000

Presbytery of West Australia

P.C. of Tasmania

2

11

Presbyterian F.C., Tasmania

1

5

P.C. of New Zealand

7

162

77

250

15,000

P.C. of Otago and Southland

1

5

106

53

291

8,667

P.C. in Canada

4

36

1,493

693

119,608

P.C. " (Ch. of Scot.)

1

3

24

15

P.C. of Scot. in Nova Scotia,

New Brunswick, and the

adjoining Provinces

1

2

14

12

P.C. of Jamaica

4

31

8,405


10

104

2,406

1,359

1,421

259,133

ASIA—Organisations Imperfect.


Ministers

Med. Agents.

Mem-
bers.

Home
Church

Remarks

For.

Nat.

For.

Nat.

EASTERN ASIA—








Asia Minor—








Latakiyeh

3

3

44

138

R.P.C.,U.S.

Persia—








Oroomiah

10

29

26

40

1,717

P.C., N. U.S.

Synod of N. York, 4 Pres.,

3 of which native

Syria—








Synod, 5 Pres.,

Beruit, &c.

14

4

20

160

1,036

"

Pres. composed of

For. and Nat. agents.

Antioch

1

2

7

R.P.C. Scot.-

R.P.C. Ire.

CENTRAL ASIA—








India—








1. Calcutta

1

10

P.C., Eng.

2. Katiawar and

Gujarat

8

7

56

292

P.C., Ireland

3. Three Pres.

10

4

10

308

399

E.C., Scot.

Military chaplains, &c.

4. "

23

11

15

287

1,403

F.C., Scot.

5. Rajpootana

13

7

225

397

U.P.C., Scot.

6. "

2

2

7

20

O.S.C., Scot.

7. Assam

8

7

176

622

Calvin M.C.

8. Synod of India,

5 Pres., Allahabad,

&c.

31

16

57

179

1,022

P.C., N U.S.

Triennial Synod.

9. Sialkot

8

2

13

116

1,132

U.P.C. U.S.

10. Arcot

7

5

7

199

1,656

Dutch R.C., U.S.

Classis of Home C.

11. "

Ger. R.C., U.S.

12. "

2

6

16

41

P.C., Canada

13. Saharanpur

EASTERN ASIA—








China—








1. Amoy

18

5

11

159

2,729

P.C. Eng.

Pres. formed 1862.

2. Swataw

"

" 1881.

3. "

2

1

P.C., Ireland.

4. "

2

1

3

16

E.C., Scot.

5. "

7

1

13

15

U.P.C., Scot.

6. Synod of China,

5 Pres., Canton, &c.

32

12

46

99

2,759

P.C., N. U.S.

Synod of Home C.

7. Amoy

4

5

5

25

750

Dutch R.C., U.S.

8. Hanchow

8

9

48

P.C., S. U.S.

Nat. Pres.

9. "

2

3

20

450

P.C., Canada

Siam

8

23

8

292

P.C., N. U.S.

Pres. of Synod of N. York.

Japan

4

6

1

12

150

U.P.C., Scot.

"U.C. of Christ" formed in

1877; Synod with 3 Pres.,

34 ministers, 3,000 nat.

communicants, one-forth

congregations self-

supporting.

"

8

1

24

16

1,025

P.C., N. U.S.

"

6

10

12

20

437

Dutch R.C., U.S.

"

2

2

Ger. R.C., U.S.

"

2

4

Cumb. P.C., U.S.

OCEANIA—








Tahiti

3

French M. Socy.

Sup. Council formed in

1884 in French posessions.

New Hebridees

14

1

175

1,090

Various Ch.

South Sea Mission

commenced 1839.

Total

262

110

327

2370

19,666



POPULATION OF BRITISH COLONIES AND DEPENDENCIES.

Name.

Govern-
ment.

Acquired.

Area in
Square Miles.

Population
last Census.

EUROPE—





Gibraltar

Crown. 1

1704

1 7/8

18,485

Heligoland

"

1807

0 3/4

2,001

Malta and Gozo

Repres. 2

1800

117

157,134

Total, Europe



119 5/8

177,620

ASIA—





Aden

Crown.

1838

66

34,711

Ceylon

Repres.

1796

25,364

2,850,000

Cyprus

"

1878

3,584

186,173

Hong Kong

Crown.

1843

29

190,594

India, British

"

1825-1885

1,064,720

201,755,993

" Feudatory States

"

714,758

55,191,742

Labuan

"

1846

30 1/4

6,298

North Borneo

Indep.

1840

27,500

175,000

Perim

Crown.

1855

4 1/2

150

Straits Settlements

"

1785-1819

1,472

540,000

" Feudatory States

"

7,809

294,000

Keeling Islands

"

1857

8

400

Kurea Murea Islands

"

"

21

34

Total, Asia



1,845,365 3/4

261,225,095

AFRICA—





Ascention Island

Crown.

1815

35

200

Basutoland

"

1868

10,290

128,176

Beuchanaland

"

1885

185,000

33,000

Berbera and vicinity

"

1884

(?)

(?)

Cape Colony

Respon. 3

1806-1877

219,700

1,252,347

Gambia

Crown.

1831

69

14,150

Gold Coast

"

1861

16,000

500,000

Lagos

"

1861

1,071

87,165

Mautitius

"

1810

708

361,404

Natal

Repres.

1838

21,150

424,495

Niger Districts

Crown.

1885

(?)

(?)

St. Helena

"

1851

47

5,085

St. Paul and Amsterdam

"

1851

(?)

(?)

Sierra Leone

"

1787

468

50,546

Socotra

"

1875

1,000

4,000

Tristan d'Acunha

"

1818

45

94

Total, Africa



455,583

2,870,662

AMERICA—





Bahamas

Repres.

1670

5,450

43,521

Barbadoes

"

1605

166

171,860

Bermudas

"

1609

20

15,036

Canada

Respon.

1623-1760

3470,392

4,450,000

Falkland Islands

Crown.

1833

6,500

1,640

Guiana

Repres.

1803

109,000

269,330

Honduras

Crown.

1783-1786

7,562

27,452

Jamaica and Turks Island

"

1629-1655

4,424

596,383

Leeward Island

Repres.

1626-1763

703

122,769

Newfoundland

Respon.

1583

40,200

197,332

South Georgia

Crown.

1,570

(?)

Trinidad

"

1797

1,754

171,914

Windward Islands

Repres.

1605-1803

623

149,535

Total, America



3,648,364

6216,772

AUSTRALASIA—





Fiji and Rotunna Islands

Crown.

1874-1881

7,754

127,279

Kermadec Islands

"

1886

21

(?)

N.-S. Wales and Norfold Is.

Respon.

1787

325,000

980,573

New Guinea

Crown.

1884

86,457

135,000

New Zealand

Respon.

1841

105,342

582,420

Queensland

"

1859

668,497

326,913

South Australia

"

1836

903,690

312,781

Tasmania

"

1803

26,215

133,791

Victoria

"

1787

87,884

991,869

Western Australia

Repres.

1829

1,057,250

35,183

Aukland, Lord Howe,

Caroline, Startrick, Malden,

and Farming Islands

Crown.

256

(?)

Total, Australia



3,268,266

3,625,809

British Colonies and
Dependencies



9,217,798 3/8

274,115,958

1 Crown. —Controlled by Home Government.

2 Respon. —Possessing representative institutions, the Crown having a veto of legislation. Public officers controlled by Home Government.

3 Respon.—Responsible Government possessed, the Crown retaining veto, but no control over public officers. Exclusive of India, �2,000,000 expended in naval and military (30,000) forces in the Colonies.

Note.—The foregoing tables have been obtained from "The Statesman's Yearbook," "Mulhall's Dictionary," "The Presbyterian Alliance," and particular Church Minutes.

GENERAL STATISTICS OF PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH

Branches

Synods

Presby-
teries

Churches.

Minis-
ters.

Elders.

Members.

People.

Gt. Brit. & Ire'd.

46

276

5,112

4,719

27,477

1,367,529

4,427,229

Cont. of Europe.

56

275

6,216

6,951

22,651

3,267,125

78,580,000*

Unit. States, &c.

92

556

22,250

14,998

44,545

2,326,721

6,950,000*

Brit. Colonies, &c.

10

104

2,406

1,359

1,421

240,929

722,787

Others, Imperf.

Organisations.

1

4

89

598

35,945

107,835

Total.

205

1,215

36,073

28,625

96,094

7,228,249

90,787,851

The above tables show the strength of the Presbyterian Church in her several branches, as far as it has been possible to obtain correct statistics. It should be remembered, however, that these returns are still incomplete. The enumeration is thus under rather than over estimated. Lutheran Churches are included where marked*.

COMPARISON — PROTESTANTS AND PRESBYTERIANS WITH THE ESTIMATED RELIGIOUS POPULATION OF THE WORLD.

Christians, 450,000,000; Buddhists, 435,000,000; Pagans, 195,400,000; Hindoos, 176,600,000; Mahometans, 169,000,000; Jews, 8,000,000. Total, 1,434,000,000.

Another computation gives the population of the world as 1,433,887,560 (E. Behrn and Dr. H. Wagner, 1882).

The Christian population of 450,000,000 is thus divided:—

212,000,000 Roman Catholic, 83,000,000 Greek Catholic, 155,000,000 Protestant.

COMPARISON WITH ESTIMATED CHRISTIAN POPULATION.

Christians

450,000,000

Protestants

155,000,000

Protestants

155,000,000

Presbyterians

90,687,851

All other Christians

295,000,000

All other Protestants

64,312,149

Thus Presbyterians outnumber all other Protestants by 26,375,702.