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Edinburgh Guide

A Walking Tour of sites of Christian Interest

John Knox
John Knox


This guide to the sites of Christian interest in Edinburgh takes the form of a walking tour around the city centre. The appendix at the back then gives details of other sites outside the centre in the immediate surrounding area. The tour begins at the statue of Thomas Guthrie in Princes Street, opposite the end of Castle Street. This is a convenient place to start if arriving by train, as this is just along Princes Street from Waverley Station. Edinburgh is also served by an international airport which is approximately 6 miles to the west of town. Buses from the airport will arrive in Princes Street near this statue. If arriving by car however, then it would be far better to start the tour at Grange Cemetery (Point no. 20 on the tour), as this is convenient for street parking and would avoid the excessive parking charges in the immediate city centre.


Thomas Guthrie (1803-1873) was one of the leaders of the Free Church in the 19th Century. 1843 was the year of the Great Disruption when 200 ministers walked out of the Church of Scotland General Assembly in protest over the subject of patronage - i.e. the idea that the landowner chooses the minister for a parish rather than letting the congregation have a say in the matter. The split was really deeper though, being that between the Moderates (who stayed in the Church of Scotland) and the Evangelicals (who came out). Thomas Guthrie was one of the leading ministers who walked out, becoming minister of Free St John's in Victoria Street. He was also a social reformer, pioneering work on the ragged schools, which provided free food and education for destitute children. He received a DD from Edinburgh University in 1849 and was moderator of the Free Church General Assembly in 1862.

Now walk up Castle Street to where George Street intersects it. In the roundabout in the centre of the road stands a statue to Thomas Chalmers.


The name of Thomas Chalmers (1790-1847) is synonymous with the Great Disruption. He was born in Anstruther in Fife and was educated at St Andrews University, where he became Professor of Moral Philosophy in 1823, after having had pastorates in Kilmany (Fife) and the Tron, Glasgow. He then became Professor of Divinity at Edinburgh in 1829. He himself was a staunch moderate whilst he was minister of Kilmany, but he was converted and became a leader of the Evangelicals, being one of the 200 ministers who walked out of the Church of Scotland General Assembly in 1843. He was the first Moderator of the subsequently formed Free Church General Assembly.

At this point a detour could be made to take in Dean Cemetery (see Appendix), which is 3/4 mile to the west.

Head east along George Street until you reach St Andrews Church on your left hand side, just past where Hanover Street intersects.


This is where the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland met in 1843 when the Disruption occurred. On 18th May 1843, 200 ministers walked out of the Assembly in protest. They were joined by 274 other ministers outside and they all marched northwards down Hanover Street, Queen Street and Dundas Street to a spot just across the Water of Leith where now stands the Standard Life Insurance building, but which then was the site of the Tanfield Hall. Here they set up the first General Assembly of the Church of Scotland - Free, and selected Thomas Chalmers as their first moderator. This involved the exodus of approx. 38% of the entire Church of Scotland, and was a major blow to it. You can retrace their steps along here if you like, but there is nothing much to see at the end.

Continue eastwards along George Street to the end (St Andrews Square) and turn left. Head up North St Davids Street and then turn right into Queen Street.


Here is a place worth visiting on the general tourist trail. Of Christian interest, there is in here a Covenanters flag. The Covenanters were a godly group of people in the 17th Century and they take their name from those who signed the National Covenant in Greyfriars Churchyard in 1638 (No. 16). This was basically a declaration against Charles I trying to impose the English prayer book and other ceremonies on the Church of Scotland. The protest, which came from the people at large, was quite successful in the end, as Charles backed down and let Presbyterianism be re-established. The Covenanters came to be known about especially after the Restoration in 1660 when Charles II came to the throne, as he had all Covenanter ministers ejected from their charges in 1662. As they started to hold illegal meetings in the open air (conventicles) they were persecuted to death. It is estimated that between 1660 and 1688, 20,000 Covenanters were killed in Scotland.

Head north up Dublin Street, east along Albany Street and north again down Albany Lane to Barony Street. The building on your left on the corner is a Glasite meeting house.


Glasites are named after John Glas (1695-1773) who was an Independent pastor. He was born in the Church of Scotland manse in Auchtermuchty in Perthshire and became the minister of Tealing near Dundee in 1719. However, he became an Independent by conviction, and started an independent group in 1725. This drew the wrath of the Church of Scotland and he was deposed in 1730. He consequently started up several independent churches in Scotland along the lines of Robert Sandeman, his son-in-law, who did so in England and the United States. They were Calvinistic and exclusive with an intellectual leaning. Only two congregations still exist in Britain, the one here and one in London. As can be seen from the name plaque, the building is shared with other groups.

Head east along Barony Street to the end and turn right into Broughton Street. Continue south down Leith Street then left down Calton Hill. Where Calton Hill meets Waterloo Place is the Precentors Plaque.


Here we see three portraits on the wall just by the steps up to Calton Hill. These men, John Templeton, David Kennedy and John Wilson were all precentors, i.e. they led the unaccompanied psalm singing which characterises Presbyterian and Reformed worship.

Head south along Calton Road, which goes underneath Waterloo Place and then under the railway. Turn right under the railway bridge up New Street until Canongate is reached, at which turn left (east).


This will be on your right hand side, i.e. the south side of Canongate. This is where Oliver Cromwell lodged after his invasion of Scotland. There was much harmony between the Scots Presbyterians and the English Independents, so much so that they drew up the Solemn League and Covenant in 1643 which was signed in St Margarets Church, Westminster. This pledged the signatories to mutual recognition and striving towards one church in the three countries of England, Scotland and Ireland. However, after Oliver Cromwell chopped Charles I's head off in 1648, the Scots were angry and immediately declared Charles II as King of Scotland. (At this point Charles II told them he would give them everything they wanted if they made him king. When he did become king in 1660 he broke all his promises and persecuted them mercilessly.) As a result Oliver Cromwell invaded Scotland (and Ireland for that matter too) and kept both countries under his thumb until his death in 1658.


Huntly House, next door to Moray House (eastwards), is the city museum. It opens at 10am and has free admission. It is very interesting for one thing, namely it contains an original copy of the National Covenant, signed in Greyfriars Churchyard in 1638. It is situated on the first floor (up stairs and turn left). It stands encased in glass next to a display of a typical room in Covenanting times. Half of one side of it has the text of the Covenant, and the remainder of that side and all of the reverse side is covered with signatures, some signed in their own blood.


This is opposite Huntly House. This was where the Covenanters were imprisoned before they were executed. Many famous Covenanters were held here including James Guthrie, the first martyr in 1661. They would then probably be executed at the Mercat Cross (No. 13) and their heads stuck on the Netherbow Port (No. 11) for show. The Tolbooth is now a brass rubbing centre and a public house.


This is situated next to the Tolbooth and east of it. Here is the grave of Horatius Bonar (1808-1889). At least that is what the sign outside says. I couldn't find it, but there is a family of Bonars buried here, to the right near the entrance and facing away from it. He could be buried there. He was a Free Church minister and wrote many hymns (although the Free Church only sing psalms!). The Edinburgh church which Dr. Bonar was a minister in was St. Catherine-Argyll (No. 19).

Now head west along Canongate.


The Netherbow Theatre and Cafe marks the spot where the Netherbow Port used to be. Here the heads of executed Covenanters were put on spikes and displayed. James Guthrie (1614-1661) and Richard Cameron (1648-1680) were two of the more famous Covenanters who underwent this treatment. Brass plates in the roadway trace the outline of the gate.


No tour of Edinburgh would be complete without a mention of John Knox (1514-1572), the great Reformer. He was born at Haddington, East Lothian and was educated at St Andrews, probably under John Major. After George Wishart's martyrdom in 1546, Knox received a call to preach the gospel. He was sent to France as a galley slave when St Andrews was captured in 1547. Upon release in 1549 he went to England until 1554, being preacher in Berwick. Upon the accession of Mary Tudor in 1554, he fled to Europe. He became minister to the English congregation in Frankfurt for a while, then moved to pastor the English church in Geneva, where John Calvin was minister of the French church. In 1559 he returned to Scotland to lead the Reformation, which succeeded after the death of Mary of Guise. He, with others, then drew up the Scots Confession, which was accepted by Parliament in 1560. He was minister of St Giles, Edinburgh (No. 14), from then on, until his death in 1572. Whilst minister there, he is reputed to have lived in this house, which is now a museum, and is situated next door to the Netherbow.

Continue westwards up the High Street.


This is situated on the left hand side (south side) just before St Giles Cathedral. This is where many Covenanters were executed between 1660 and 1688.


This church was only a Cathedral as such when Presbyterianism was not established, i.e. in the brief periods between 1637-39 and 1660-88. It was probably originally founded in 1130AD, but a substantially new building was erected in 1467. Between 1560 and his death in 1572, John Knox was the minister here. The Church of Scotland General Assembly, which meets across the High Street in New College, always has a service here annually.

St Giles

Items of interest:

(1) Statue of John Knox, faces away from you as you enter the west door.
(2) Monument to the First Marquis of Argyll. He was a great supporter of the Covenanters. In 1651 he placed the crown on the head of Charles II as he was declared king, much to the annoyance of Oliver Cromwell in England. Charles had promised to establish Presbyterianism if the monarchy was restored. Ten years later when it was restored, Charles went back on all his promises, established Episcopacy instead (rule by bishops) and chopped the Marquis of Argyll's head off. The Marquis is buried at Kilmun, 3 miles north of Dunoon.
(3) Here are the stones which marked the grave of John Knox before they built a car park on it (see 7).
(4) In the floor here is a plaque to Jenny Geddes. She was a local peasant woman who threw a stool at the Dean as he tried to read from Archbishop Laud's new prayer book and impose it on the Scottish people in 1637. This sparked off public unrest which culminated in the signing of the National Covenant in Greyfriar's Churchyard (No. 16) the next year, and the re-establishment of Presbyterianism soon afterwards.
(5) This corner of the Cathedral (the Albany Aisle) was known as Haddow's Hole. It was where many Covenanters were imprisoned in 1666 after their defeat at the battle of Rullion Green, after the unsuccessful Pentland Rising (see Appendix).
(6) Here is the grave of the First Marquis of Montrose (1612-1660). He signed the National Covenant in 1638, but changed sides as the political scene suited him. He was hanged as a traitor in 1650, but after the Restoration in 1660 his dismembered body was re-united and given a heroes burial. It is a sign of the times that the tour guides of St Giles today show him as a hero, and his grave is carefully kept with flowers, yet the Marquis of Argyll's grave (2) is kept in a dingy condition in the dark!
(7) Around the back of the Cathedral in Parliament Square is the car park for the law courts. Parking lot 23 is the spot where John Knox was buried in 1572. The only thing that marks it now is a small yellow square. The stone which used to mark it is in the Cathedral (3).

Continue along the High Street westwards and take the next left down George IV Bridge.


This is on your right at no. 28. It is on the first floor. It is run by the Brethren.

Continue southwards until you meet the corner of Candlemaker's Row on your right. At this junction is the entrance to Greyfriar's Churchyard.


It was here in the Churchyard of Greyfriars that the National Covenant was signed in 1638.

Greyfriars Churchyard

Things of interest to see are:

(1) Grave of Alexander Henderson (1583-1646). He is known as 'The Architect of the Covenant' as he was responsible for drawing up most of the National Covenant. He was ordained minister of Leuchars in Fife against the wishes of the congregation. They locked him out of the church on the day of the induction service and he had to climb through the window in order to continue the service. Not long afterwards he went secretly to hear the great Evangelical minister of the day Robert Bruce (1554-1631), who took as his text John 10:1 "He that entereth not by the door into the sheepfold but climbeth up some other way, the same is a thief and a robber". He was soundly converted after this and championed the Evangelical cause ever since! He not only drew up the National Covenant, but also the Solemn League and Covenant in 1643. He was Moderator of the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland in the year of great reform, 1638, and was the leader of the Scottish Commissioners at the Westminster Assembly of Divines, which met in Westminster Abbey 1643-47. He became minister of Greyfriars in 1638 and later of St Giles (No. 14).
(2) Grave of George Buchanan (1506-1592). He was more of a writer than anything else. He studied the classics and was tutor to Mary Queen of Scots. He supported the Reformation, and Mary found him a greater enemy even than John Knox! He was an MP, Principal of St Leonard's College, St Andrews and, unusually for someone who was not a minister, he bacame Moderator of the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland.
(3) Grave of Thomas McCrie (1797-1875). He was ordained a minister of the Original Secession church in 1820. This church was formed by five ministers of the Church of Scotland in 1733 after they were removed from office. Two of the leaders were Ralph and Ebenezer Erskine. Thomas McCrie wrote a well known work 'The History of the Scottish Church'. He was instrumental in bringing about the union between the Original Secession Church and the relatively newly formed Free Church in 1852. In 1856 he was Moderator of the General Assembly of the Free Church.
(4) Inside the church itself is a small museum in a room in the SW corner. Please be warned of the bias against the Regulative Principle of worship in the museum display material. It is nauseating when museums/history books etc. put their own 'spin' on events rather than simply displaying facts, which is what they should be doing. Here you may find:

  • (i) A sword belonging to Daniel McMichael, a Covenanter shot in 1685 at Lower Dalveen in Nithsdale, Dumfriesshire. He is buried in the churchyard in Durisdeer, a nearby village.
  • (ii) Ebenezer Erskine's walking stick.
  • (iii) Alexander Peden's Bible. He was known as 'The Prophet of the Covenant' as he had a strange knack of foretelling future events to some extent. He was a minister in South West Scotland until he was imprisoned on the Bass Rock off the coast of East Lothian 1673-77.
  • (iv) A copy of the National Covenant (hanging on the wall behind curtains).
  • (5) Also inside the church, the pulpit has an inscription on it showing that here was where the National Covenant was signed in 1638.
    (6) After the battle of Bothwell Brig, near Hamilton, in 1679, the heavily defeated Covenanters were rounded up and imprisoned in the Covenanters prison here. It was open to the elements then as it is today. 1200 of them were imprisoned here and then sentenced to be transported to the plantations in the West Indies. They sailed from Leith, but one ship carrying 200 of them, sank at Deerness, off Orkney.
    (7) Here stands the Martyr's Monument. This commemorates the spot where many Covenanters were buried during the difficult times between 1662 and 1688. They were regularly hanged in the Grassmarket (No. 17), laid out in the Magdalen Chapel (No. 18) and buried here.

    Turn left out of Greyfriars and down the hill of Candlemaker's Row into the Grassmarket.


    A large, flat, circular monument in the central aisle at the near end of the Grassmarket marks the spot where many Covenanters were executed.

    Do not stay in this area long, it is not very safe. Head east down Cowgate and find the Magdalen Chapel on your right, just before the bridge.


    This is situated at 41 Cowgate and is open Monday to Friday 9.30am to 4.30pm. This is now the Headquarters of the Scottish Reformation Society. Between being executed at the Grassmarket (No. 17) and being buried in Greyfriar's Churchyard (No. 16), the bodies of the Covenanters were laid out here, part of the table used for this purpose is still to be seen. The very first General Assembly of the Church of Scotland in 1560 met here under the leadership of John Knox. The stained glass windows are the only intact pre-Reformation stained glass windows left in Scotland. A portrait of James Begg (1808-1883) hangs on the wall. He was the founder of the Scottish Reformation Society in 1850. He took part in the Disruption of 1843 and was minister of Newington Free Church, Edinburgh. He championed the cause for those against the union of the Free Church and the United Presbyterian Church (descended from the Secession Church of 1733). These were Voluntaries (i.e. not adhering to the Establishment Principle) and used hymns and other man-made items in public worship, hence Begg's opposition to them.

    Return up Candlemaker's Row back to the entrance to Greyfriars churchyard.

    The next point of interest on the tour, Grange Cemetery, is 1/2 mile to the south of this point. It has been included in the main tour as it is a very important place to visit. If desired, however, this point can be missed out and visited another time. (If you wish to miss this out, then turn left along George VI Bridge and rejoin the walk at no. 21).

    To reach the cemetery, turn right along Forrest Road and continue in a straight line all the way, crossing Lauriston Place and following the footpath/cycle track across The Meadows. Continue straight across Melville Drive and up Argyle Place and Chalmers Crescent until Grange Road is reached.


    This church, at the far end of Chalmers Crescent on the corner with Grange Road, used to be known as the Thomas Chalmers Memorial Church, and Horatius Bonar (1808-1889), the hymnwriter, was the minister here just before his death. It was a Free Church of Scotland, but in 1900 it went into union with the United Presbyterian Church (to form the United Free Church) and then in 1929 most of this body rejoined with the Church of Scotland, of which this church is a member today. Bonar lived at 10 Palmerston Road, just around the corner from here.


    This is a very significant graveyard because of the high proportion of Scottish divines that are buried here. Most of them were connected with the Free Church in the 19th Century and were very much involved in the Disruption of 1843 when the Free Church was founded. The cemetery is open Monday to Friday from 8am until 4.30pm.

    Grange Cemetery

    Key to map:

    (1) Hugh Miller (1802-1856). From Cromarty. Editor of 'The Witness' newspaper and geologist. Fully supported the Disruption in 1843. Committed suicide after developing a brain disease.
    (2) Thomas Chalmers (1780-1847). One of the leaders of the Free Church Disruption in 1843 as 38% of the ministers of the Church of Scotland walked out to form the Free Church. He was their first moderator.
    (3) Patrick Fairbairn (1805-1874). Free Church leader and writer of 'Typology of Scripture' and 'The Interpretation of Prophecy'. He became the Principal of the Glasgow Free Church College in 1857 and was Moderator of the Free Church Assembly in 1864.
    (4) Alexander Duff (1806-1878). Missionary to India. 'Duff College' in Calcutta became the largest missionary school in India. At the time of the Disruption, almost all of the Church of Scotland missionaries at the time sided with the Free Church. He was moderator of the Free Church General Assembly in 1851.
    (5) Robert Young (1822-1888). Literary missionary and superintendant of the Mission Press at Surat, India. He was a multi-linguist and his most noteable work was his 'Analytical Concordance to the Bible'.
    (6) James Bannerman (1807-1868). He was one of the leaders of the Free Church at the time of the Disruption. In 1849 he was appointed Professor of Apologetics at New College, Edinburgh.
    (7) William Cunningham (1805-1861). Another Free Church divine. He succeeded Thomas Chalmers as Principal of New College, Edinburgh in 1847. In 1859 he became Moderator of the Free Church General Assembly. He published many good books including 'The Reformers and the Theology of the Reformation', 'Discussions on Church Principles' and 'Historical Theology'.
    (8) Hugh Martin (1822-1885). Free Church minister of Free Greyfriars, Edinburgh. He was an associate of James Begg as a chief contributor to 'The Watchword' magazine. His best known literary work is 'The Atonement'.
    (9) George Smeaton (1814-1889). Free Church minister who became Professor of New Testament Exegesis at New College, Edinburgh in 1857. Best known for his two works 'The Doctrine of the Holy Spirit' and 'The Doctrine of the Atonement'.
    (10) Thomas Guthrie (1803-1873). Free Church leader at the time of the Disruption. Minister of Free St John's, Edinburgh. His statue stands in Princes Street (No. 1).
    (11) Robert Flockhart (1778-1857). Converted in the army in India, he became a well known street preacher in Edinburgh.
    (12) James Buchanan (1804-1870). Minister of North Leith Church then later St Giles (No. 14), but he left during the Disruption to become minister of St Stephens, Edinburgh. He succeeded Thomas Chalmers as Professor of Systematic Theology at New College, Edinburgh in 1847. His most well known works are 'The Office and Work of the Holy Spirit' and 'The Doctrine of Justification'.

    Now return back to Greyfriars, i.e. Head north down Chalmers Crescent and Argyle Place, then across The Meadows using the footpath/cycle track and back along Forrest Road.

    Continue along George IV Bridge until you reach Lawnmarket and turn left. Free St Columbas Church is on the junction of this road with Johnston Terrace on your left.


    This is one of only two Free Churches still remaining in Edinburgh today, as most of them went into the union with the United Presbyterian Church in 1900 and then into union with the Church of Scotland in 1929. This is where the Free Church hold their General Assembly every year in May. If you get chance to look around inside, the ornate pulpit is worth seeing. During Edinburgh Festival week there is usually a cafe here.

    Turn left out of the Church and continue up Castlehill.


    The Argyll Tower was a place where Covenanters were held as it was a state prison.

    From the castle head back down Castlehill but take the first turning on your left, Ramsay Lane. This turns right into Mound Place.


    On your right is New College. This was originally built as a Free Church College after the Disruption in 1843. Fifty years later, in 1893, in the Assembly Hall, Rev. Donald Macfarlane of Raasay tabled his protest at the General Assembly over the passing of a Declaratory Act which changed the terms of adherence of ministers and elders to the Confessions of the church. This led to the formation of the Free Presbyterian Church of Scotland. In 1900 the bulk of the Free Church united with the United Presbyterian Church to form the United Free Church. In 1905, after the dispute with the Free Church remnant over property was resolved, the United Free Church obtained the building. They in turn united with the Church of Scotland in 1929 and so the building is now used as a Church of Scotland theological college and is where they hold their General Assembly every year. The Free High Church built as an integral part of the building became New College Library in 1936 and now houses the largest separate theological library in Britain. In 1961 the Church of Scotland gave the building to the University of Edinburgh, but under strict conditions. A statue of John Knox stands inside the courtyard, outside the main entrance to the library.


    Just a short distance further along (to the east) at 15 North Bank Street lies the present day Free Church College. In 1727 James Brownhill built this building as, what was it that day, a block of luxury flats The philosopher David Hume (1771-1776) purchased a flat here in 1762. It was bought in 1858 for the rapidly expanding Free Church to house their offices, and after losing New College in 1905 this building was also used thereafter as their theological college. This dual function of offices and college is still maintained to the present day.

    If the caretaker is available he will be glad to show any interested visitor around. Some of the more interesting rooms inside include:

    (1) The Presbytery Room: This is where the Edinburgh and Perth Presbytery meet in monthly session. It contains a large picture by David Octavius Hill depicting all the Free Churchmen signing the Deed of Demission in the Tanfield Hall in 1843. It took over 20 years to paint and is really a little inaccurate as not all of the people depicted were actually at the event, although all fully supported it.
    (2) The Senate Room: This room contains a good collection of books including some very rare Puritan works. The business of the College is conducted here.
    (3) The Chalmers Room: This is used as an examination room for the college students. It is also used as a meeting room for the Ladies Missionary Society and as the College Common Hall. It contains many interesting documents, including the actual protest read out at the Church of Scotland General Assembly in 1843 after which 200 ministers walked out, and a copy of Archbishop Laud's prayer book which Charles I tried to impose on the people in 1638. After Presbyterianism was re-established, all the copies of it that could be found were burnt, so there are probably no more than half a dozen left in the world today.

    Just inside the entrance foyer of the building on the left is the Free Church Bookshop. This is open Monday to Friday 11am-1pm and 1.30pm-5pm. Tel. 0131-220 0669.

    Now head north down The Mound and turn left into Princes Street to return to Thomas Guthrie's statue (No. 1), where the tour now ends.



    This is situated in Dean Village and can be included in the tour as a detour from Point no. 2, Thomas Chalmers statue. It is situated about 3/4 mile from it. Head north-west up Queensferry Street then bear left down Bells Brae and Dean Path. The entrance to the cemetery is on your left.

    Brownlow North (1810-1875) is buried here. He was the grandson of the Bishop of Winchester and great-grandson of Lord North, British Prime Minister. He studied at Eton. He lived a careless life until he was converted in 1854. He became a gifted preacher and the Free Church eventually recognised him as an evangelist. He preached to thousands throughout Scotland and Northern Ireland and was the instrument used in revival in 1859 and the years following.

    His grave is situated at the far end of the cemetery, from the first roundabout bear left then continue in that direction for 250 yards. The grave is an obelisk on the left of the path near a large rotunda grave to a James Buchanan on the right.


    This column is situated in Redford Road approx 3 miles south of the city centre. Best approach (by car) is to leave Edinburgh on the A702 Biggar road. Just before hitting the Ring Road head right at the traffic lights along Oxgangs Road, then bear left onto Redford Road. The column is on your left hand side outside the entrance to Dreghorn Barracks.

    This marks the furthest spot in 1666 that the Covenanters who were involved in the 'Pentland Rising' reached before being forced to turn back. The rising began in Dalry in Kirkcudbrightshire, and the people marched towards Edinburgh, gathering supporters on the way, but their expected reinforcements from Edinburgh did not appear and they were forced to retreat from this spot to Rullion Green (3) where they were slaughtered by government troops under the leadership of General Tam Dalyell.


    From junction of A702 and A703 at Straiton, 4 miles south of the City Centre, head away from Edinburgh on the A702 but check your mileage at this junction. After exactly 3.5 miles there is a farm track heading off to your right. Park you car here and walk up the track. Upon reaching the farm, head diagonally across field towards the wood, and you will see the monument come into view in front of the wood surrounded by railings.

    This was the scene of the battle which terminated the Pentland Rising in 1666. An ill-trained and poorly equipped force of 900 Covenanters were routed by General Dalyell's troops. About 50 were killed, but many more suffered as a result. This became an excuse for the severe persecution of the Covenanters. The stone records that John Crookshanks, Andrew McCormick and 50 others fell on 28th November 1666. Prisoners were taken to 'Haddow's Hole' in St Giles Cathedral (No. 14). The Covenanters were led by Major Joseph Learmont.